आहारस्त्वपि सर्वस्य त्रिविधो भवति प्रियः।
यज्ञस्तपस्तथा दानं तेषां भेदमिमं श्रृणु॥
aharas tv api sarvasya
tri-vidho bhavati priyah
yajnas tapas tatha danam
tesam bhedam imam srnu
āhāraḥ—eating; tu—certainly; api—also; sarvasya—of everyone; trividhaḥ—three kinds; bhavati—there are; priyaḥ—dear; yajñaḥ—sacrifice; tapaḥ—austerity; tathā—also; dānam—charity; teṣām—of them; bhedam—differences; imam—thus; śṛṇu—hear.
Even food of which all partake is of three kinds, according to the three modes of material nature. The same is true of sacrifices, austerities and charity. Listen, and I shall tell you of the distinctions of these.
रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः॥
आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःखशोकामयप्रदाः॥
यातयामं गतरसं पूति पर्युषितं च यत्।
उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम्॥
rasyah snigdhah sthira hrdya
puti paryusitam ca yat
ucchistam api camedhyam
āyuḥ—duration of life; sattva—existence; bala—strength; ārogya—health; sukha—happiness; prīti—and satisfaction; vivardhanāḥ—increasing; rasyāḥ—juicy; snigdhāḥ—fatty; sthirāḥ—enduring; hṛdyāḥ—pleasing to the heart; āhārāḥ—food; sāttvika—to one in goodness; priyāḥ—palatable.
Foods in the mode of goodness increase the duration of life, purify one’s existence and give strength, health, happiness and satisfaction. Such nourishing foods are sweet, juicy, fattening and palatable. Foods that are too bitter, too sour, salty, pungent, dry and hot, are liked by people in the modes of passion. Such foods cause pain, distress, and disease. Food cooked more than three hours before being eaten, which is tasteless, stale, putrid, decomposed and unclean, is food liked by people in the mode of ignorance.