Chap-XVII-Verse-18-28

VERSE 18
सत्कारमानपूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत्‌।
क्रियते तदिह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलमध्रुवम्‌॥

satkara-mana-pujartham
tapo dambhena caiva yat
kriyate tad iha proktam
rajasam calam adhruvam

SYNONYMS
satkāra—respect; māna—honor; pūjā-artham—for worship; tapaḥ—austerity; dambhena—with pride; ca—also; eva—certainly; yat—which is; kriyate—performed; tat—that; iha—in this world; proktam—is said; rājasam—in the mode of passion; calam—flickering; adhruvam—temporary.

TRANSLATION
Those ostentatious penances and austerities which are performed in order to gain respect, honor and reverence are said to be in the mode of passion. They are neither stable nor permanent.


VERSE 19
मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पीडया क्रियते तपः।
परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम्‌॥

mudha-grahenatmano yat
pidaya kriyate tapah
parasyotsadanartham va
tat tamasam udahrtam

SYNONYMS
mūḍha—foolish; grāheṇa—with endeavor; ātmanaḥ—of one’s own self; yat—which; pīḍayā—by torture; kriyate—is performed; tapaḥ—penance; parasya—to others; utsādanārtham—causing annihilation; vā—or; tat—that; tāmasam—in the mode of darkness; udāhṛtam—is said to be.

TRANSLATION
And those penances and austerities which are performed foolishly by means of obstinant self-torture, or to destroy or injure others, are said to be in the mode of ignorance.


VERSE 20
दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे।
देशे काले च पात्रे च तद्दानं सात्त्विकं स्मृतम्‌॥

datavyam iti yad danam
diyate ‘nupakarine
dese kale ca patre ca
tad danam sattvikam smrtam

SYNONYMS
dātavyam—worth giving; iti—thus; yat—that which; dānam—charity; dīyate—given; anupakāriṇe—to any person irrespective of doing good; dese—in place; kāle—in time; ca—also; pātre—suitable person; ca—and; tat—that; dānam—charity; sāttvikam—in the mode of goodness; smṛtam—consider.

TRANSLATION
That gift which is given out of duty, at the proper time and place, to a worthy person, and without expectation of return, is considered to be charity in the mode of goodness.


VERSE 21
यत्तु प्रत्युपकारार्थं फलमुद्दिश्य वा पुनः।
दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद्दानं राजसं स्मृतम्‌॥

yat tu pratyupakarartham
phalam uddisya va punah
diyate ca pariklistam
tad danam rajasam smrtam

SYNONYMS
yat—that which; tu—but; prati-upakāra-artham—for the sake of getting some return; phalam—result; uddiśya—desiring; vā—or; punaḥ—again; dīyate—is given in charity; ca—also; parikliṣṭam—grudgingly; tat—that; dānam—charity; rājasam—in the mode of passion; smṛtam—is understood to be.

TRANSLATION
But charity performed with the expectation of some return, or with a desire for fruitive results, or in a grudging mood, is said to be charity in the mode of passion.


VERSE 22
अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते।
असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम्‌॥

adesa-kale yad danam
apatrebhyas ca diyate
asat-krtam avajnatam
tat tamasam udahrtam

SYNONYMS
adesa—unpurified place; kāle—unpurified time; yat—that which is; dānam—charity; apātrebhyaḥ—to unworthy persons; ca—also; dīyate—is given; asatkṛtam—without respect; avajñātam—without proper attention; tat—that; tāmasam—in the mode of darkness; udāhṛtam—is said to be.

TRANSLATION
And charity performed at an improper place and time and given to unworthy persons without respect and with contempt is charity in the mode of ignorance.


VERSE 23
ॐ तत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः।
ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा॥

om tat sad iti nirdeso
brahmanas tri-vidhah smrtah
brahmanas tena vedas ca
yajnas ca vihitah pura

SYNONYMS
om—indication of the Supreme; tat—that; sat—eternal; iti—that; nirdeśaḥ—indication; brāhmaṇāḥ—of the Supreme; tri-vidhaḥ—three kinds; smṛtaḥ—consider; brahmaṇaḥ—the brāhmaṇas; tena—therefore; vedāḥ—the Vedic literature; ca—also; yajñāḥ—sacrifice; ca—also; vihitāḥ—sacrifice; purā—formerly.

TRANSLATION
From the beginning of creation, the three syllables-om tat sat-have been used to indicate the Supreme Absolute Truth [Brahman]. They were uttered by brāhmaṇas while chanting Vedic hymns and during sacrifices, for the satisfaction of the Supreme.


VERSE 24
तस्मादोमित्युदाहृत्य यज्ञदानतपः क्रियाः।
प्रवर्तन्ते विधानोक्तः सततं ब्रह्मवादिनाम्‌॥

tasmad om ity udahrtya
yajna-dana-tapah-kriyah
pravartante vidhanoktah
satatam brahma-vadinam

SYNONYMS
tasmāt—therefore; om—beginning with om; iti—thus; udāhṛtya—indicating; yajña—sacrifice; dāna—charity; tapaḥ—penance; kriyāḥ—performances; pravartante—begins; vidhāna-uktāḥ—according to scriptural regulation; satatam—always; brahma-vādinām—of the transcendentalists.

TRANSLATION
Thus the transcendentalists undertake sacrifices, charities, and penances, beginning always with om, to attain the Supreme.


VERSE 25
तदित्यनभिसन्दाय फलं यज्ञतपःक्रियाः।
दानक्रियाश्चविविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः॥

tad ity anabhisandhaya
phalam yajna-tapah-kriyah
dana-kriyas ca vividhah
kriyante moksa-kanksibhih

SYNONYMS
tat—that; iti—they; anabhisandhāya—without fruitive result; phalam—result of sacrifice; yajña—sacrifice; tapaḥ—penance; kriyāḥ—activities; dāna—charity; kriyāḥ—activities; ca—also; vividhāḥ—varieties; kriyante—done; mokṣa-kāṅkṣibhiḥ—those who actually desire liberation.

TRANSLATION
One should perform sacrifice, penance and charity with the word tat. The purpose of such transcendental activities is to get free from the material entanglement.


VERSE 26-27
सद्भावे साधुभावे च सदित्यतत्प्रयुज्यते।
प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा सच्छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते॥
यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सदिति चोच्यते।
कर्म चैव तदर्थीयं सदित्यवाभिधीयते॥

sad-bhave sadhu-bhave ca
sad ity etat prayujyate
prasaste karmani tatha
sac-chabdah partha yujyate
yajne tapasi dane ca
sthitih sad iti cocyate
karma caiva tad-arthiyam
sad ity evabhidhiyate

SYNONYMS
sat-bhāve—in the sense of the nature of the Supreme; sādhu-bhāve—in the sense of the nature of devotion; ca—also; sat—the Supreme; iti—thus; etat—this; prayujyate—is used; praśaste—bona fide; karmaṇi—activities; tathā—also; sat-śabdaḥ—sound; pārtha—O son of Pṛthā; yujyate—is used; yajñe—sacrifice; tapasi—in penance; dāne—charity; ca—also; sthitiḥ—situated; sat—the Supreme; iti—thus; ca—and; ucyate—pronounced; karma—work; ca—also; eva—certainly; tat—that; arthīyam—are meant; sat—Supreme; iti—thus; eva—certainly; abhidhīyate—is practiced.

TRANSLATION
The Absolute Truth is the objective of devotional sacrifice, and it is indicated by the word sat. These works of sacrifice, of penance and of charity, true to the absolute nature, are performed to please the Supreme Person, O son of Pṛthā.


VERSE 28
अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत्‌।
असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह॥

asraddhaya hutam dattam
tapas taptam krtam ca yat
asad ity ucyate partha
na ca tat pretya no iha

SYNONYMS
aśraddhayā—without faith; hutam—performed; dattam—given; tapaḥ—penance; taptam—executed; kṛtam—performed; ca—also; yat—that which; asat—falls; iti—thus; ucyate—is said to be; pārtha—O son of Pṛthā; na—never; ca—also; tat—that; pretya—after death; no—nor; iha—in this life.

TRANSLATION
But sacrifices, austerities and charities performed without faith in the Supreme are nonpermanent, O son of Pṛthā, regardless of whatever rites are performed. They are called asat and are useless both in this life and the next.

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