Chap-XVIII-Verse-13-22

VERSE 13-14
पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे ।
साङ्ख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम्‌ ॥
अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्विधम्‌ ।
विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टा दैवं चैवात्र पञ्चमम्‌ ॥

pancaitani maha-baho
karanani nibodha me
sankhye krtante proktani
siddhaye sarva-karmanam
adhisthanam tatha karta
karanam ca prthag-vidham
vividhas ca prthak cesta
daivam caivatra pancamam

SYNONYMS
pañcha—five; etāni—these; mahā-bāho—mighty-armed one; kāraṇāni—causes; nibodha—listen; me—from me; sānkhye—of Sānkya; kṛita-ante—stop reactions of karmas; proktāni—explains; siddhaye—for the accomplishment; sarva—all; karmaṇām—of karmas; adhiṣhṭhānam—the body; tathā—also; kartā—the doer (soul); karaṇam—senses; cha—and; pṛithak-vidham—various kinds; vividhāḥ—many; cha—and; pṛithak—distinct; cheṣhṭāḥ—efforts; daivam—Divine Providence; cha eva atra—these certainly are (causes); pañchamam—the fifth

TRANSLATION
O mighty-armed Arjuna, learn from Me of the five factors which bring about the accomplishment of all action. These are declared in sāṅkhya philosophy to be the place of action, the performer, the senses, the endeavor, and ultimately the Supersoul.


VERSE 15
शरीरवाङ्‍मनोभिर्यत्कर्म प्रारभते नरः ।
न्याय्यं वा विपरीतं वा पञ्चैते तस्य हेतवः॥

sarira-van-manobhir yat
karma prarabhate narah
nyayyam va viparitam va
pancaite tasya hetavah

SYNONYMS
śarīra—body; vāk—speech; manobhiḥ—by the mind; yat—anything; karma—work; prārabhate—begins; naraḥ—a person; nyāyyam—right; vā—or; viparītam—the opposite; vā—or; pañca—five; ete—all these; tasya—its; hetavaḥ—causes.

TRANSLATION
Whatever right or wrong action a man performs by body, mind or speech is caused by these five factors.


VERSE 16
तत्रैवं सति कर्तारमात्मानं केवलं तु यः ।
पश्यत्यकृतबुद्धित्वान्न स पश्यति दुर्मतिः ॥

tatraivam sati kartaram
atmanam kevalam tu yah
pasyaty akrta-buddhitvan
na sa pasyati durmatih

SYNONYMS
tatra—there; evam—certainly; sati—being thus; kartāram—of the worker; ātmānam—the soul; kevalam—only; tu—but; yaḥ—anyone; paśyati—sees; akṛta-buddhitvāt—due to unintelligence; na—never; saḥ—he; paśyati—sees; durmatiḥ—foolish.

TRANSLATION
Therefore one who thinks himself the only doer, not considering the five factors, is certainly not very intelligent and cannot see things as they are.


VERSE 17
यस्य नाहङ्‍कृतो भावो बुद्धिर्यस्य न लिप्यते ।
हत्वापि स इमाँल्लोकान्न हन्ति न निबध्यते ॥

yasya nahankrto bhavo
buddhir yasya na lipyate
hatvapi sa imal lokan
na hanti na nibadhyate

SYNONYMS
yasya—of one who; na—never; ahaṅkṛtaḥ—false ego; bhāvaḥ—nature; buddhiḥ—intelligence; yasya—one who; na—never; lipyate—is attached; hatvā api—even killing; saḥ—he; imān—this; lokān—world; na—never; hanti—kills; na—never; nibadhyate—becomes entangled.

TRANSLATION
One who is not motivated by false ego, whose intelligence is not entangled, though he kills men in this world, is not the slayer. Nor is he bound by his actions.


VERSE 18
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना ।
करणं कर्म कर्तेति त्रिविधः कर्मसङ्ग्रहः ॥

jnanam jneyam parijnata
tri-vidha karma-codana
karanam karma karteti
tri-vidhah karma-sangrahah

SYNONYMS
jñānam—knowledge; jñeyam—objective; parijñātā—the knower; tri-vidhā—three kinds; karma—work; codanā—impetus; karaṇam—the senses; karma—work; kartā—the doer; iti—thus; tri-vidhaḥ—three kinds; karma—work; saṅgrahaḥ—accumulation.

TRANSLATION
Knowledge, the object of knowledge and the knower are the three factors which motivate action; the senses, the work and the doer comprise the threefold basis of action.


VERSE 19
ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः ।
प्रोच्यते गुणसङ्ख्याने यथावच्छ्णु तान्यपि ॥

jnanam karma ca karta ca
tridhaiva guna-bhedatah
procyate guna-sankhyane
yathavac chrnu tany api

SYNONYMS
jñānam—knowledge; jñeyam—objective; parijñātā—the knower; tri-vidhā—three kinds; karma—work; codanā—impetus; karaṇam—the senses; karma—work; kartā—the doer; iti—thus; tri-vidhaḥ—three kinds; karma—work; saṅgrahaḥ—accumulation.

TRANSLATION
Knowledge, the object of knowledge and the knower are the three factors which motivate action; the senses, the work and the doer comprise the threefold basis of action.


VERSE 20
सर्वभूतेषु येनैकं भावमव्ययमीक्षते ।
अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम् ॥

sarva-bhutesu yenaikam
bhavam avyayam iksate
avibhaktam vibhaktesu
taj jnanam viddhi sattvikam

SYNONYMS
sarva-bhūteṣu—in all living entities; yena—by whom; ekam—one; bhāvam—situation; avyayam—imperishable; īkṣate—does see; avibhaktam—undivided; vibhakteṣu—in the numberless divided; tat—that; jñānam—knowledge; viddhi—knows; sāttvikam—in the mode of goodness.

TRANSLATION
That knowledge by which one undivided spiritual nature is seen in all existences, undivided in the divided, is knowledge in the mode of goodness.


VERSE 21
पृथक्त्वेन तु यज्ज्ञानं नानाभावान्पृथग्विधान्‌ ।
वेत्ति सर्वेषु भूतेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि राजसम्‌ ॥

prthaktvena tu yaj jnanam
nana-bhavan prthag-vidhan
vetti sarvesu bhutesu
taj jnanam viddhi rajasam

SYNONYMS
pṛthaktvena—because of division; tu—but; yat jñānam—which knowledge; nānā-bhāvān—multifarious situations; pṛthak-vidhān—differently; vetti—one who knows; sarveṣu—in all; bhūteṣu—living entities; tat jñānam—that knowledge; viddhi—must be known; rājasam—in terms of passion.

TRANSLATION
That knowledge by which a different type of living entity is seen to be dwelling in different bodies is knowledge in the mode of passion.


VERSE 22
यत्तु कृत्स्नवदेकस्मिन्कार्ये सक्तमहैतुकम्‌।
अतत्त्वार्थवदल्पंच तत्तामसमुदाहृतम्‌॥

yat tu krtsna-vad ekasmin
karye saktam ahaitukam
atattvartha-vad alpam ca
tat tamasam udahrtam

SYNONYMS
yat—that which; tu—but; kṛtsnavat—all in all; ekasmin—in one; kārye—work; saktam—attached; ahaitukam—without cause; atattva-arthavat—without reality; alpam ca—and very meager; tat—that; tāmasam—in the mode of darkness; udāhṛtam—is spoken.

TRANSLATION
And that knowledge by which one is attached to one kind of work as the all in all, without knowledge of the truth, and which is very meager, is said to be in the mode of darkness.

 

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