Chap-XVIII-Verse-32-37

VERSE 32
अधर्मं धर्ममिति या मन्यते तमसावृता।
सर्वार्थान्विपरीतांश्च बुद्धिः सा पार्थ तामसी॥

adharmam dharmam iti ya
manyate tamasavrta
sarvarthan viparitams ca
buddhih sa partha tamasi

SYNONYMS
adharmam—irreligion; dharmam—religion; iti—thus; yā—which; manyate—thinks; tamasā—by illusion; āvṛtā—covered; sarva-arthān—all things; viparītān—the wrong direction; ca—also; buddhiḥ—intelligence; sa—that; pārtha—O son of Pṛthā; tāmasī—the mode of ignorance.

TRANSLATION
That understanding which considers irreligion to be religion and religion to be irreligion, under the spell of illusion and darkness, and strives always in the wrong direction, O Pārtha, is in the mode of ignorance.


VERSE 33
धृत्या यया धारयते मनःप्राणेन्द्रियक्रियाः।
योगेनाव्यभिचारिण्या धृतिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी ॥

dhrtya yaya dharayate
manah-pranendriya-kriyah
yogenavyabhicarinya
dhrtih sa partha sattviki

SYNONYMS
dhṛtyā—determination; yayā—by which; dhārayate—is sustained; manaḥ—mind; prāṇa—life; indriya—senses; kriyāḥ—activities; yogena—by yoga practice; avyabhicāriṇyā—without any break; dhṛtiḥ—such determination; sā—that; pārtha—O son of Pṛthā; sāttvikī—in the mode of goodness.

TRANSLATION
O son of Pṛthā, that determination which is unbreakable, which is sustained with steadfastness by yoga practice, and thus controls the mind, life, and the acts of the senses, is in the mode of goodness.


VERSE 34
यया तु धर्मकामार्थान्धत्या धारयतेऽर्जुन।
प्रसङ्‍गेन फलाकाङ्क्षी धृतिः सा पार्थ राजसी॥

yaya tu dharma-kamarthan
dhrtya dharayate ‘rjuna
prasangena phalakanksi
dhrtih sa partha rajasi

SYNONYMS
yayā—by which; tu—but; dharma-kāma-arthān—for religiosity and economic development; dhṛtyā—by determination; dhārayate—in such terms; arjuna—O Arjuna; prasaṅgena—for that; phala-ākāṅkṣī—desiring fruitive result; dhṛtiḥ—determination; sā—that; pārtha—O son of Pṛthā; rājasī—in the mode of passion.

TRANSLATION
And that determination by which one holds fast to fruitive result in religion, economic development and sense gratification is of the nature of passion, O Arjuna.


VERSE 35
यया स्वप्नं भयं शोकं विषादं मदमेव च।
न विमुञ्चति दुर्मेधा धृतिः सा पार्थ तामसी॥

yaya svapnam bhayam sokam
visadam madam eva ca
na vimuncati durmedha
dhrtih sa partha tamasi

SYNONYMS
yayā—by which; svapnam—dream; bhayam—fearfulness; śokam—lamentation; viṣādam—moroseness; madam—illusion; eva—certainly; ca—also; na—never; vimuñcati—is liberated; durmedhāḥ—unintelligent; dhṛtiḥ—determination; sā—that; pārtha—O son of Pṛthā; tāmasī—in the mode of ignorance.

TRANSLATION
And that determination which cannot go beyond dreaming, fearfulness, lamentation, moroseness, and illusion-such unintelligent determination is in the mode of darkness.


VERSE 36-37
सुखं त्विदानीं त्रिविधं श्रृणु मे भरतर्षभ।
अभ्यासाद्रमते यत्र दुःखान्तं च निगच्छति॥
यत्तदग्रे विषमिव परिणामेऽमृतोपमम्‌।
तत्सुखं सात्त्विकं प्रोक्तमात्मबुद्धिप्रसादजम्‌॥

sukham tv idanim tri-vidham
srnu me bharatarsabha
abhyasad ramate yatra
duhkhantam ca nigacchati
yat tad agre visam iva
pariname ‘mrtopamam
tat sukham sattvikam proktam
atma-buddhi-prasada-jam

SYNONYMS
sukham—happiness; tu—but; idānīm—now; tri-vidham—of three kinds; śhṛiṇu—hear; me—from me; bharata-ṛiṣhabha—Arjun, the best of the Bharatas; abhyāsāt—by practice; ramate—rejoices; yatra—in which; duḥkha-antam—end of all suffering; cha—and; nigachchhati—reaches; yat—which; tat—that; agre—at first; viṣham iva—like poison; pariṇāme—in the end; amṛita-upamam—like nectar; tat—that; sukham—happiness; sāttvikam—in the mode of goodness; proktam—is said to be; ātma-buddhi—situated in self-knowledge; prasāda-jam—generated by the pure intellect.

TRANSLATION
O best of the Bhāratas, now please hear from Me about the three kinds of happiness which the conditioned soul enjoys, and by which he sometimes comes to the end of all distress. That which in the beginning may be just like poison but at the end is just like nectar and which awakens one to self-realization is said to be happiness in the mode of goodness.

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